Code  Title  MC  Sem I  Sem II 

Quantum Mechanics II  4 
SCARANI Valerio 
 

Experimental Physics II  4 
TOK Eng Soon (coordinator) 
TOK Eng Soon (coordinator) 

Electricity and Magnetism II  4 
LIM Hock Siah Paul 
 

Nuclear & Particle Physics  4 
NG Wei Khim 
 

Applied Nuclear Physics  4 
 
NG Wei Khim & CHAN Taw Kuei 

Atomic & Molecular Physics I  4 
 
Kai DIECKMANN 

Solid State Physics I  4 
PEREIRA M Vitor 
 

Computational Methods in Physics  4 
 
LIM Hock Siah Paul 

Fluid Dynamics  4 
 
LIM Hock 

Special Problems in Undergrad Physics II  4 
project based 
project based 

Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics  4 
 
 

Solid State Devices  4 
 
Nidhi SHARMA 

Physics of Semiconductor Processing  4 
 
 

Photonics  4 
 
JI Wei 

Astrophysics I  4 
 
Cindy NG Shao Chin 

Modern Optics  4 
JI Wei 
 

Nanophysics  4 
 
Ariando 

Biophysics II  4 
 
WANG Zhisong 

Mathematical Methods in Physics II  4 
Edward TEO Ho Khoon 
 

Senior Student Seminar  4 
 
 

Advanced UROPS in Physics I  4 
project based 
project based 

Advanced UROPS in Physics II  4 
project based 
project based 

Radiation Laboratory  4 
 
 
Brief Description of Modules
Prerequisite & Preclusion(s): please refer to NUS Bulletin Online
PC3130 Quantum Mechanics II
This module continues from PC2130 and completes the basic formation of the student in quantum mechanics.
Description of composite systems: tensor product, twoparticle entanglement; systems of N identical particles.
Perturbation theory: timeindependent, both nondegenerate and degenerate; example: Zeeman effect. Timedependent: Fermi golden rule; example: atom in a classical em field. Discussion of stimulated and spontaneous emission.
Other approximation schemes: the variational principle; the WKB approximation and the “classical” region, tunneling and the connecting formula; the adiabatic approximation. Scattering: partial wave analysis and the Born approximation..
PC3193 Experimental Physics II
This continuous assessment module is intended to provide training in experimental techniques and analytical skills. Experiments are based on various areas of physics such as spectroscopy, nuclear physics, laser physics, optics and electronics. Some experiments involve the use of researchgrade equipment like the electron microscope, the atomic force microscope and the FTIR spectrophotometer. Projecttype experiments are also available. The module is targeted at science and engineering students who have a foundation in Level 2 experimental physics.
PC3231 Electricity and Magnetism II
This is the sequel to PC2131 Electricity & Magnetism I, leading to the objective of understanding classical electrodynamics. Most of the examples presented require a certain degree of mathematical manipulation, as compared to a first course in electricity and magnetism. It covers the following topics: conservation laws, electromagnetic waves in vacuum and in matter, guided waves, the potential formulation, LienardWiechert potentials, dipole radiation, radiation from point charges, special relativity, relativistic mechanics and relativistic electrodynamics.
PC3232 Nuclear & Particle Physics
This is an intermediate course in nuclear physics, with an introduction to particle physics. Properties of nuclei, e.g., masses, spins, and moments, are introduced and an introductory discussion of nuclear models is presented, the semiempirical mass formula, the Fermi gas model, the shell model and some aspects of the collective model are discussed. The energy balances and spin/parity selection rules of alpha, beta and gamma decay processes are discussed in considerable detail. The various types of interaction between radiation and matter are discussed, and an introduction to radiation detectors is given. A discussion of the operational principles and technological aspects of accelerators and an introductory survey of particle physics completes the material covered.
PC3232B Applied Nuclear Physics
This module explores elements of nuclear physics and its applications for students who are not physics majors, beginning with a concise introduction to the relevant elements of quantum mechanics. After a discussion of basic nuclear properties (masses, radii, spins, binding energies), elements of nuclear structure are introduced (liquid drop, Fermi gas and Shell model). Then alpha, beta and gamma decays, their selection rules and transition probabilities are discussed. The general properties of nuclear reactions, their conservation laws and energetics and the general features of the different reaction mechanisms are illustrated.The various interactions between radiation and matter are discussed, and an introduction to radiation detectors and technological applications (nuclear medicine, PET, accelerators, fusion, fission) are covered, and lastly the basics of radiation protection are discussed.
PC3233 Atomic & Molecular Physics I
This module presents the basic concepts and principles of atomic and molecular physics. In particular, the module revolves around the energy level schemes of atoms and molecules which are essential to the interpretation of atomic and molecular spectra. Topics covered include the hydrogen and helium atoms, spinorbit coupling schemes, hyperfine interaction, Lamb shift, atoms in magnetic fields, multielectron atoms, Pauli exclusion principle, Hund's rules, diatomic molecules, BornOppenheimer approximation, electronic, vibrational, rotational and rotationalvibrational spectra; The module is targeted at students who have background in quantum mechanics and want to build the foundations for studying the interactions of matter and light in modern atomic physics contexts.
PC3235 Solid State Physics I
This is a first course in solid state physics. It aims to lay the foundations for students seeking to major in physics as well as students studying in materials science and engineering. The lectures emphasize on the fundamental concepts of condensed matter, covering crystal structure and reciprocal lattice, crystal binding and elastic constants, crystal vibrations and thermal properties, free electron theory and physical properties of metals, electron in periodic potentials, and basic semiconductors. Simple model prediction data and the experimental data from real systems would be compared and discussed to help students develop an intuitive understanding of the subject.
PC3236 Computational Methods In Physics
The module presents basic computational methods useful for physics and science students. The lectures cover: (1) Basic numerical methods  differentiation, integration, interpolation, rootfinding and random number generators, (2) Differential equations  finite difference method, shooting method and relaxation method; applications to chaotic dynamics of a driven pendulum, onedimensional SchrÃ¶dinger equation, and fast Fourier transform, (3) Matrices  Gaussian elimination scheme for a system of linear equations, eigenvalues of Hermitian matrices; HartreeFock approximation, (4) Monte Carlo simulations  sampling and integration; random walk and simulation of diffusion equation, stochastic differential equation, Brownian dynamics; variational Monte Carlo simulation; Metropolis algorithm and Ising model, and (5) Finite element methods  basic concepts; applications to the Poisson equation in electrostatics.
PC3238 Fluid DynamicsI
This module introduces physics students to the fundamental aspects of fluid dynamics. The NavierStokes equations are derived from first principles. After a discussion of the various versions of Bernoulli's equation and the concept of vorticity, the study of fluid flows starts with the potential flows, with an application to the theory of airfoils. The theory of irrotational water waves is then presented to illustrate dispersive wave propagation and the hyperbolic tendency to form shocks. The balance of these two tendencies produces soliton solutions. The concept of flow similarity is applied to the study of boundary layer. The phenomenon of boundary layer separation is discussed. The concept of hydrodynamic instability is illustrated with the RayleighBenard convection problem. The chaotic dynamics of the related Lorenz equation is then presented. A brief introduction to turbulence closes the module.
PC3239 Special Problems in Undergrad Physics II
The module is intended for a small cohort of undergraduates who have a strong aptitude for physics and who have demonstrated outstanding scholarship. The problems will be assigned on a casebycase basis.
PC3240 Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics
This module will cover the basic physical principles and mathematical theories essential for understanding the dynamics of the atmosphere, ocean and climate. The aim is to provide students with an introductory but rigorous course, so that they will be wellprepared for postgraduate studies or a career as research scientist at weather services or climate research establishments. The major topics to be covered include: radiative energy balance and greenhouse effect, dynamics of the atmosphere in the midlatitudes and the tropics, dynamics of the wind driven, thermohaline ocean circulations, and numerical simulations of the atmosphereocean systems for weather prediction and climate projects.
PC3241 Solid State Devices
This module aims to introduce students to solid state devices. The topics covered include: introduction to semiconductors, charge carrier concentrations, drift of carriers in electric and magnetic fields, diffusion and recombination of excess carriers, pn junction physics, junction diodes, tunnel diodes, photodiodes, light emitting diodes, bipolar junction transistors, junction field effect transistors (JFET), metalsemiconductor contacts metalinsulatorsemiconductor interfaces, basic MOSFET.
PC3242 Physics of Semiconductor Processing
The module discusses the physics of material processing techniques in semiconductor industry, in particular diffusion, ion implantation, oxidation/dielectric layers, epitaxy, thin film deposition and characterization, lithography and etching. The limitation and future development of current microelectronic technology, processing and application of nanostructured materials, as well as optoelectronic device fabrication will also be discussed. This module is designed for physics and materials science students who are interested in working in semiconductor manufacturing and related areas.
PC3243 Photonics
This module is a first course on photonics that combines fundamentals with important applications, and is targeted at students interested in modern optical technology. The course covers planar dielectric waveguides, basics of optical fibre communication, optical properties of crystals and semiconductors, interband transitions and radiative recombination, semiconductor detectors, stimulated emission and population inversion, diode laser threshold and output power, argon and YAG lasers, Qswitching and modelocking, electrooptics modulators and flat panel displays. The course strives to maintain succinctness in physical meaning and simplicity in approach with generous allotment of numerical examples to help in understanding the equations.
PC3246 Astrophysics I
This module introduces students to the physics of stars and the closely related processes of nucleosynthesis. A brief review of basic astronomy and an introduction to the relevant nuclear physics is given, followed by a discussion of the big bang cosmology. Then important elements of the structure of stars are discussed, including: heat transfer in stars, thermonuclear fusion in stars, stellar structures and star lifecycles. We will discuss nucleosynthesis via quiescent burning, and the various processes that lead to the production of heavy (A>60) elements. The module ends with an introduction to very recent developments, e.g. gamma and neutrino astronomy.
PC3247 Modern Optics
The objective of this module is to establish the interconnectedness of knowledge between principles of optics and modern sciences/technologies and identify the applications in our daily life. It covers wave properties, refraction and dispersion, interference, Michelson interferometer, FabryPerot cavity and optical resonator, interference filter, Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, resolution limit, Fourier transformation, holography; polarisation, birefringence and wave plates, light absorption and emission, lasers. This module is targeted at physics and nonphysics students, who are interested in principles of modern optics.
PC3251 Nanophysics
The changes to physical properties (electronic, optical and magnetic) due to formation of structures at the nanoscale will be the main emphasis of this module. Properties differing from the bulk due either to an increase in surface area/volume ratio or quantum confinement will be studied in structures ranging from quantum wells, wires and dots to selfassembled monolayers and heterostructure formation. The kinetics and thermodynamics driving the formation of these nanostructured surfaces and interfaces will be discussed. The module will also highlight current and potential applications of these nanoscale systems. Examples of materials systems will include metals, oxides, IIIV, IIVI, CNT, SiC and SiGe systems.
PC3267 Biophysics II
This module aims to introduce the principles and approaches of physics in the area of molecular biophysics. It includes molecular complexes of biomolecules; physical and symmetrical relationships between biomolecules; physical and structural characteristics of proteins and amino acids; symmetric and statistical descriptions of nucleic acids; first law and second law of thermodynamics in biological systems; bonding and nonbonding potentials, and stabilizing interactions in biomacromolecules, and the correlation to macromolecular structures; molecular mechanics in biological systems; bio soft condensed materials, biomembrane and biomembrane structure, principles of molecular self assembly of biomolecules. There is a lab component included in this module. This module is targeted at both physics and nonphysics students who already have basic knowledge in physics and life sciences.
PC3274 Mathematical Methods in Physics II
This module introduces important mathematical methods for the solution of a variety of mathematical problems in physics. The following topics are covered: functions of a complex variable, singularities and residues, contour integration; calculus of variations; transformations in physics, symmetries and group theory, discrete groups, group representations and their applications in physics; tensor analysis, application to classical mechanics, electrodynamics, and relativity.
PC3280 Senior Student Seminar
This student seminar series offers the opportunity to study a particular subject directly supervised by a faculty member whose research is related to the subject. The subjects are presented in form of seminar talks with time for questions and discussions, and are to be summarized in a report. Emphasis is made on further developing presentation and communication skills by supervision of the preparation of seminar talks and feedback on presentation style involving fellow students. The actual physical field that is covered by the seminar series depends on the particular lecturer(s) and will be announced online.
PC3288 Advanced UROPS in Physics I
Please note also that only 4MCs can be accredited towards major requirements in case that a student undertakes 8MCs for both PC3288 and PC3289.
PC3289 Advanced UROPS in Physics II
Please note also that only 4MCs can be accredited towards major requirements in case that a student undertakes 8MCs for both PC3288 and PC3289.
PC3294 Radiation Laboratory
The module provides handson experience with modern detectors, electronics, data acquisition systems, radiation sources and other nuclear physics equipment that forms the basis for the applications of nuclear physics to medical physics, radiation protection and other fields. The module will be restricted to the students in the Medical Physics minor.